And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth distress of nations in perplexity because of the roaring of the sea and the waves,

(Luke 21:25) ESV

Kepler’s laws don’t prove heliocentricity, they prove that the sun is at one focus of elliptical planetary orbits. The Earth is the other focus. Kepler couldn’t find the second focus because he was standing on it.

Heliocentric and *Geocentrospheric* are different frames of reference in the same system. They coexist. The heliocentric theory doesn’t, as people assume, make *Geocentrosphericity* impossible. We’re on the Earth, we observe the cosmos from the Earth, our frame of reference is empirically and inherently *Geocentrospheric*. The only way that we could have a heliocentric frame of reference is if we were on the sun.

#### Heliocentric or *Geocentrospheric*?

- IF you were on the Sun you’d be observing heliocentricity,
- SINCE you’re not, you’re on the Earth, you’re observing
*Geocentrosphericity*.

Kepler’s Laws for planetary motion were found by Johannes Kepler and they are stated below. The following explanation is adapted from BYJU’s.

### Kepler’s First Law

“All planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus”. Although technically correct and empirical, it’s only half of the story. All planets move around a binary system composed of the Earth and sun, with the Earth at f

– Kepler’s First Law_{1}, the sun at f_{2}. That’s why the orbits are elliptical.

Explanation: An ellipse traced out by a planet around the sun. The closest point is P and the farthest point is A, P is called the perihelion and A the aphelion. The semimajor axis is half the distance AP.

Kepler’s laws describe planetary orbits as elliptical with the sun at one focus (f_{2}).

The problem is that Kepler made his observation from the Earth, and the planetary system he was observing was (and still is) orbiting the Earth every day.

This means that the earth is f_{1}.

### Kepler’s Second Law

“The line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal interval of time”.

– Kepler’s Second Law

Explanation:

- P is the planet that moves around the sun in an elliptical orbit
- ∆A is the area swept
- ∆t is the time interval

Basically, the closer the planet is to perihelion, the faster it’s moving. Clearly the orbit is being driven by the gravitational force of the body at f_{1}. As the planet approaches perihelion (the closest point to f_{1}) gravitational attraction causes it to gain speed and momentum. Once it passes perihelion it begins to loose velocity, but the momentum gained on approach causes its orbit.

### Kepler’s Third Law

“The square of the time period of the planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit”

– Kepler’s Third Law

This is what’s generally referred to as fluff. Stating the obvious for the sake of being thorough. However, it’s empirical so Kepler could call it a law.

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