Hypothesis 31

Bowen’s Reaction Series and Stratification of the Firmament

I clothe the heavens with blackness, and I make sackcloth their covering.

(Isaiah 50:3) KJV

The core accretion model (Hypothesis 1) may be expanded to include the formation of a second series of strata which became the firmament, a sphere of rigid crystal on the edge of space.

Predictive Testable Hypothesis 31

  • IF the creation of gravity on the 2nd day caused 2 main formations of sediment to be deposited:
    1. Concentric layers accumulated around a singularity forming a spherical earth,
      • These deposits include, among other things, the Banded Iron Formations.
    2. Approximately 1,736,441 light years from the singularity a series of layers crystallized to form the firmament, also known as the body of heaven:
      • The upper part of the series is described in Revelation 21,
      • The lower part of the series broke apart to become the stars.
  • THEN minerals in the series will show evidence of a transition in several properties.

“For this the earth shall mourn, and the heavens above be dark; for I have spoken; I have purposed; I have not relented, nor will I turn back.”

(Jeremiah 4:28) ESV

Our hypothesis also gives us a mechanism for how the inner surface of the firmament became blackened and a source of material for the stars by relating the series of crystal forms listed in Revelation 21:19-20 with Bowen’s Reaction Series.

And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald; The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.

(Revelation 21:19-20) KJV

We’ve equated the foundations of the wall of the city with the firmament, which formed in response to the creation of gravity on the second day. Given that gravity would cause substances with different properties to separate out and form bands (as seen in centrifuge tests) we would anticipate that the layers would show a range of properties from one extreme to another, arranged along a gradient. However, when we look at the properties of the crystals listed there is no obvious range of values.

On the fourth day the Sun formed when God created a gravitational singularity with the specific frequency of Hydrogen. This heated the firmament to about 900°C which caused a layer at the base of the Revelation 21 series to melt and turn black. The layers below this sloughed off, fragmented, and became the stars.

The Revelation 21 Series appears to grade from opaque heavily pigmented crystal forms to clear colorless forms. The heating of the firmament when the sun was created caused the clarity of the upper layers to improve:

Zircon (Jasper) occurs in many colors, including reddish brown, yellow, green, blue, gray and colorless. The color of zircons can sometimes be changed by heat treatment. Common brown zircons can be transformed into colorless and blue zircons by heating to 800 to 1000 °C.


Materials Classification

4Reflecting bright^^^^^^^^^^^^
5Reflecting dull^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

What can be said is that if Jasper is the first foundation then it’s the lowest in the sequence. Amethyst is the highest in the sequence. There is a vague trend from opaque colored crystals to clear colorless crystals.

On one hand it’s tempting to say that the actual substances in the foundations of heaven are unknown on Earth, and that the description of earthly forms is given us so that we have a frame of reference. As such, attempting to see some sort of gradation of forms in what has been listed is misguided.

On the other hand, even though there’s no earthly form of Gold which is so pure that it’s as clear as glass, the earthly examples of the other forms may be remnants of the heavenly which fell to Earth during Noah’s flood. Evidence of heavenly compounds being deposited on Earth includes the Iridium anomaly. This consists of shocked Quartz grains and rolled glass beads in a layer around the world which corresponds to the windows of heaven closing and shutting off the supply of water from above the firmament.

Even though we don’t see an obvious trend in material properties of the foundations of heaven an interesting thing happens when we speculate about the inner layers of the firmament which were shed on the fourth day and which have been used to construct the stars. We know from empirical observations that there are rubies, sapphires and diamonds out there among the stars. If we consider the possibility that M87* is Obsidian, on earth what we call volcanic glass, we suddenly get something that fits with the narrative that we have deduced.

If the basal layer of Jasper was underlain by a precursor to glass, which would become Obsidian after it melted and cooled, below which was a second series of crystal including ruby, sapphire and diamond, then melting point is the key. This just happens to align very nicely with Bowen’s Reaction Series.

Bowen’s Reaction Series describes the temperature at which minerals crystallize when cooled, or melt when heated. The low end of the temperature scale where all minerals crystallize into solid rock is approximately 700°C (158°F).

Bowen’s Reaction Series – Geosciences LibreTexts

Crystal Forms and Properties

LayerNameCrystal SystemMohs
12Amethyst (Quartz)Trigonal72.651650
11Jacinth (Zircon)Tetragonal7.54.6 – 4.72200 – 2250
10ChrysoprasusCryptocrystalline6 – 73.97 – 43265
9TopazOrthorhombic83.49 – 3.571000
8BerylHexagonal7.5 – 82.761287
7Chrysolite (Peridot)Orthorhombic6.5 – 73.2 – 4.31400
6Sardius (Carnelian)Trigonal6 – 72.59 – 2.611650
5Sardonyx (Onyx)Trigonal6.5 – 72.55 – 2.71650
4EmeraldHexagonal7.5 – 82.762570
3ChalcedonyTrigonal or monoclinic6 – 72.59 – 2.611650
2SapphireTrigonal94.0 – 4.12030 – 2050
1Jasper2.5 – 2.91200
0ObsidianAmorphous5 – 62.4700 – 900
-2RubyTrigonal93.97 – 4.052000
-3SapphireTrigonal94.0 – 4.12030 – 2050

When the sun was created the heat caused layer 0 in the series to melt and become black. Everything below it had a melting point so high that it was unaffected by the heat, but the layers fragmented and became the stars. The layers above it were not affected by the heat either, but they’re now invisible from below because of the black color of Obsidian.


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